Predicting partially observed processes on temporal networks by Dynamics-Aware Node Embeddings (DyANE)
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan
2 Turing Center for Living Systems, Aix Marseille Univ, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, Marseille, France
3 Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
4 University of Turin, Turin, Italy
5 ISI Foundation, Turin, Italy
Accepted: 21 April 2021
Published online: 1 May 2021
Low-dimensional vector representations of network nodes have proven successful to feed graph data to machine learning algorithms and to improve performance across diverse tasks. Most of the embedding techniques, however, have been developed with the goal of achieving dense, low-dimensional encoding of network structure and patterns. Here, we present a node embedding technique aimed at providing low-dimensional feature vectors that are informative of dynamical processes occurring over temporal networks – rather than of the network structure itself – with the goal of enabling prediction tasks related to the evolution and outcome of these processes. We achieve this by using a lossless modified supra-adjacency representation of temporal networks and building on standard embedding techniques for static graphs based on random walks. We show that the resulting embedding vectors are useful for prediction tasks related to paradigmatic dynamical processes, namely epidemic spreading over empirical temporal networks. In particular, we illustrate the performance of our approach for the prediction of nodes’ epidemic states in single instances of a spreading process. We show how framing this task as a supervised multi-label classification task on the embedding vectors allows us to estimate the temporal evolution of the entire system from a partial sampling of nodes at random times, with potential impact for nowcasting infectious disease dynamics.
Key words: Temporal networks / Node embedding / Dynamical processes
© The Author(s) 2021
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