Money flow network among firms’ accounts in a regional bank of Japan
Graduate School of Information Science, University of Hyogo, 650-0047, Kobe, Japan
2 The Center for Data Science Education and Research, Shiga University, 522-8522, Hikone, Japan
3 RIKEN iTHEMS, Wako, 351-0198, Saitama, Japan
4 Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 100-0013, Tokyo, Japan
5 Graduate School of Data Science, Shiga University, 522-8522, Hikone, Japan
6 Graduate School of Economics, Shiga University, 522-8522, Hikone, Japan
Accepted: 11 April 2021
Published online: 21 April 2021
In this study, we investigate the flow of money among bank accounts possessed by firms in a region by employing an exhaustive list of all the bank transfers in a regional bank in Japan, to clarify how the network of money flow is related to the economic activities of the firms. The network statistics and structures are examined and shown to be similar to those of a nationwide production network. Specifically, the bowtie analysis indicates what we refer to as a “walnut” structure with core and upstream/downstream components. To quantify the location of an individual account in the network, we used the Hodge decomposition method and found that the Hodge potential of the account has a significant correlation to its position in the bowtie structure as well as to its net flow of incoming and outgoing money and links, namely the net demand/supply of individual accounts. In addition, we used non-negative matrix factorization to identify important factors underlying the entire flow of money; it can be interpreted that these factors are associated with regional economic activities. One factor has a feature whereby the remittance source is localized to the largest city in the region, while the destination is scattered. The other factors correspond to the economic activities specific to different local places. This study serves as a basis for further investigation on the relationship between money flow and economic activities of firms.
Key words: Input-output table / Hodge decomposition / Non-negative matrix factorization / Bowtie-walnut structure
© The Author(s) 2021
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